Ideology: The way we think about something becomes our ideology (philosophy, belief system) and affects our behavior. If we think that employees are lazy and irresponsible (Douglas McGregor’s Theory X), then we watch them closely and treat them like prisoners. On the other hand, if we consider them productive, responsible folks, we treat them like colleagues (Theory Y). The author suggests management ideology comes from a healthy tug of war between yin/yang-like theories, such that it’s not one ideology vs. the other, rather a blend that makes sense. He uses the role of a parent as both nurturer and disciplinarian as an apt analogy. Within organizations, there’s a real tension between competing ideologies of bureaucracy and innovation. The discipline and stability of bureaucracy can be a real advantage and yet become a snag to innovative or creative thinking. The new organizational reality mandates bold and focused ideas, demonstrated by progressive companies.